Chapter 1 first addresses the pillars of assessment, how it differs from evaluation and when grades come in. The chapter references the various objective oriented assessments. Assessment for learning, of learning, evaluation, grading. diagnostic, formative and summative.
The chapter states that assessment, involves feedback and its primary purpose is to promote learning for students, where as evaluation is the process of judging work against a standard.
It emphasizes the main distinction in assessment, for learning and of learning. Assessment for learning begin with a diagnostic assessment, to identify where the students knowledge and skills lie, and where there may be gaps. Assessment provides feedback, that shows the student where they are at in understanding concepts and entices students to improve their knowledge base.
Assessment of learning is a summative assessment of how the student has performed, and is then compared to an established standard.
Chapter 2 address changing in learning.
It touches upon topics that include, learning in the digital age, inquiry-based learning, norm and criterion reference systems.
In the digital age, textbooks cannot keep up with the volume information and rate of its expansion, being facilitated through the internet and modern day technologies. Teacher’s, board’s and policy need to continually evolve to keep the education system up to date and relevant for it’s students.
Inquiry-based learning, is a seemingly more engaging method of inducing learning among students. Situations are created where students are more personally involved, posing their own questions, consulting with peers, and guiding they’re own learning. With Inquiry-based learning, teachers act as facilitators, and guide discussion and inquiry. The well of information is in the discussion, not the teacher him or herself.
Norm referenced systems measure a student’s performance in relation to the other students in the class. This method, sifts and sorts students into “winners” and “losers”. Criterion referencing, uses an established standard to measure student’s performance.